The Republic of Ghana is a West African English-speaking country. French is also widely accepted as a language of commerce. Mining is the main industry in Ghana, although the country is making a substantial effort to diversify the economy. Recently there has been significant growth in the telecommunications and financial services sectors, which creates business opportunities for businesses considering expansion into West Africa.
Employment contracts should be written if the employment is for six months or more and must contain both parties’ rights and obligations. Employers must provide a written statement with the name of the employer and employee, start date, job title, work hours, salary, annual leave, social security, overtime payment, sick leave and dispute resolution within two months of the employment starting. Employment contracts can be indefinite for long term employment, while fixed-term contracts are for project-based work. Employers can also use temporary worker contracts for those employed for fewer than six months and casual work contracts for work as and when required. There are no statutory provisions for background screening but checks directly related to employment are allowed.
The standard workweek is 40 hours or eight hours a day over five days. Employees receive a 12-hour rest period over 24 hours or 48 hours over a period of one week. Employees cannot work overtime unless both parties agree. Those younger than 18 years old can only be employed if they are declared fit by a doctor. They cannot be employed in dangerous environments or in underground mines. Evening work is between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and a pregnant woman cannot work those hours.
There is no sick leave in the labor code.
Female employees receive 12 weeks of paid leave which can be extended by two weeks if there are complications during the pregnancy or if there are multiple births. Her contract is protected during the term. There is currently no paternity leave.
Employees in Ghana are entitled to an hourly minimum wage. Bonuses are around 15% of the annual basic salary and are taxed at 5%.
Employees receive 15 days of paid annual leave and it must be taken in one allocation.
The state provides universal healthcare, though supplementary private healthcare is recommended.
The probation period is not capped, nor are there fixed-term contracts. Notice of termination ranges from seven days to a month depending on length of service, while those working on contracts with ‘at will’ clauses require no notice. Severance pay is tiered based on the amount of time the employee has worked at a company and ranges from eight to 13 weeks. Employers can terminate contracts for misconduct, incompetence and redundancy, and the employer must provide written notice. For redundancy, the employer must provide written notice to the Labor Officer, the trade union and include the reason for termination within three months of planned redundancy. The trade union must be consulted to help minimize the adverse effects of redundancy.
We understand that local laws and regulations change and sourcing an accurate reference guide is not easy. Our data is researched and verified by our team of local international Employment Attorneys, HR and Benefit Professionals and Tax Accountants through our Atlas team and consultants, to ensure information up-to-date and accurate.
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